NY Requirements - Blog
As the school year starts up again and summer comes close to ending, what was one of your most memorable summer vacation trips? Chances are high that it probably involved taking a few days off from work, heading to the beach with your family and friends, and spending the weekend wading in the waves, building sandcastles along the beach, and enjoying the ocean breeze. However, this lovely, unforgettable weekend-long beach trip might have turned out rather bad for an unlucky few people.
One of the more severe, cringe-worthy moments that seemed to escalate this past summer were the multiple cases of flesh-eating bacteria found lingering in the warm waters around the United States. Although this flesh-eating bacterium, known as “Necrotizing Fasciitis”, has been circulating around for some time, this summer there were
Humans aren’t the only ones enjoying the long, hot summer days. Around this time of the year, mosquitoes are in full bloom – breeding, flying around and spreading deadly diseases around the world.
Although mosquitoes are relatively small insects, they are one of the most deadliest animals on the plant, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). Every year, they carry and manage to spread diseases to humans, causing millions of deaths around the world. In 2015, WHO stated that an estimated 438,000 people died from malaria alone, and that more life-threatening diseases such as Zika, West Nile vir
The measles outbreak happening in the United States has seen the highest number of cases reported since 1994, according to the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Since the beginning of this year, over 700 individual cases throughout 22 different states have been confirmed through the CDC.
Although measles was declared eliminated in 2000, the contagious disease has made its way back into the system and has been reported in Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Texas, Tennessee, and Washington.
What is it :
Candida auris (C. auris) is a species of fungus that grows as yeast. It causes serious infections and is the leading cause of candidemia (candida infection of the bloodstream). C. auris is multidrug-resistant and has caused serious outbreaks in several countries. Due to its difficulty to identify and treat, C. auris has quickly become one of 2019 most concerning infectious diseases and presents a serious global health threat.
Where did it come from:
C. auris was first described as a pathogen in 2009 in Japan, when it was isolated from a patient with an ear infection. Retrospective review of Can
Over the last year, talk about a possible smallpox re-emergence has been spreading. We will take a deeper look into this historic disease and try to determine why there is a growing concern, how can it affect us all and what can we do to protect ourselves?
“Smallpox was eradicated in 1980 but in 2017, Canadian scientists created a smallpox-like virus in a lab using just mail-order DNA” said UNSW Professor of Infectious Disease Epidemiology Raina MacIntyre. “In 2018, these same scientists published a step-by-step method to create a pox virus in a lab, making the threat of smallpox re-emergence even greater.”
Why is this so alarming? The only remaining stockpiles of the actual smallpox virus is heavily guarded, but with this scientific breakthrough in creating a smallpox-like virus with
Baby boomers are individuals born between 1945 and 1965 and currently the largest living adult generation. Based on the 2016 U.S. population ranking by age, there are approximately 74.1 million baby boomers in the United States and they have the highest incidences of hepatitis C infections.
With such a large population, combined with previous unsafe medical procedures, baby boomers are 5 times more likely to have hepatitis C than any other adult. Out of the more than three million people living with hepatitis C, three out of every four are baby boomers.
According to the CDC, most baby boom
With the danger of uncontrollable bacterial infections increasing globally, a revitalized look at how bacteriophage can aid us in battling antibiotic-resistant infections is a promising alternative.
What is Bacteriophage?
Bacteriophage , or “phage” for short is a virus that infects and replicates within bacteria. There are more phage on earth than bacteria and are considered the “ Deadliest being on Planet Earth ”. Although they are lethal, they are specialized to particular bacteria in which they kill.
Phages can infect their bacteria host in two wa
The list of neurological threats related to Zika appears to be growing after a recent study concluded that the mosquito-born illness can cause a new autoimmune disease that attacks the brain and the spinal cord.
The condition is Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM), and it shares certain similarities with multiple sclerosis.
The study, led by Dr. Maria Lucia Brito Ferreira at Restoration Hospital in Recife, Brazil, had 151 patients who visited the hospital from December 2014 to June 2015.
All of these patients were infected with arboviruses, which is the family of viruses that include Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya. Six of those patients had Zika and developed symptoms consistent with autoimmune disorders. These six patients suffered from fevers and rashes, both of which are Zika related symptoms. Some patients also suffered from joint pain and r
The latest global report on HIV-AIDS shows promising trends in controlling the epidemic, but some hurdles remain in improving access to life-saving treatments
A new report from UNAIDS in advance of World AIDS Day shows some impressive progress in the fight against HIV. There were 2 million new HIV infections around the world in 2014–15, the lowest since 2000, when 3.1 million people worldwide were diagnosed with HIV. Deaths from AIDS, the last stages of HIV infection, are also coming down, from a high of 2 million in the early 2000s to 1.2 million this year.
Much of that can be attributed to improved access to life-saving treatments with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). UNAIDS says that 41% of people who are HIV positive are now being treated, nearly double the percentage in 2010. (Meanwhile, in the U.S., drugs that can prevent the transmission of HIV are proving successful, even in high-risk groups.)
While infections in sub-Saharan Africa remain
For the past several years, the medical community has warned about the dangers of superbugs, which are potentially deadly strains of bacteria that no longer respond to antibiotics as treatment.
Well the proof is in the pudding---American scientists claims that a 30 percent decline in the efficacy of antibiotics may be responsible for some 6,000 deaths each year.
The team of scientists, lead by Professor Ramanan Laxminarayan from the Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics and Policy in Washington, D.C., also set out to discover what would happen if antibiotic resistance increased by a third (which it’s apparently on track do).
The researchers focused particularly on pat
A U.S. doctor who thought he was cured of Ebola learned that wasn’t entirely true after his eye turned from blue to green and he nearly went blind.
Dr. Ian Crozier contracted the disease while treating other patients in Sierra Leone back in October 2014.
After a long, draining bout with Ebola, Crozier’s medical team at Emory University Hospital declared him cured and released him.
However, in less than two months he returned to the hospital with fading sight, pain and pressure in his left eye. To make matters worse, his eye color turned from blue to green.
What doctors found was alarming---his
A disease that was practically non-existent in the United States took the nation by surprise last year when a reported 644 measles cases popped up. As the medical community tried to pin down the origins of this outbreak, the anti-vaccine camp (including comedian/actress Jenny McCarthy, who publicly speaks out against them, tying vaccines to autism) was identified as a possible connection to sudden surge in measles.
McCarthy, along with many others believe vaccines are dangerous and are a part of a movement that encourages parents to not vaccinate their children, which may be allowing the disease to spread more easily.
Disneyland in Orange County, California was dubbed ground zero for the most recent outbreak.
However, a recent Vox.com article traces the beginning of the recent American measles surge to an Amish missionary worker’s travels in the Philippines.
The unnamed missionary worker, dubbed patient zero, travelled from O
For the last six decades, it’s been widely accepted that clinical depression stems from various combinations of biological, psychological and environmental influences---it’s treated as an emotional disease connected to the brain.
Scientists have also observed that the brains of people who suffer from depression are markedly different from those who do not.
There are certain neurotransmitters, primarily serotonin, which tend to be deregulated for people who have clinical depression, also known as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), but there aren’t many answers as to why these areas of the brain differ in depressed people.
Dr. Turhan Canli, an integrative neuroscience associate professor at Stony Brook University, has stirred up a bit of controversy in the science community after making claims that depression may have less to do with brain chemistry, and more to do with a viral or bacterial infection, the Huffington Post report
A drug-resistant strain of tuberculosis is spreading at an alarming rate, posing a risk that the world has never faced, according to Medicins Sans Frontieres/Doctors Without Borders (MSF).
TB is branded one of the most lethal diseases by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It kills around 1.3 million out of the 8 million people that it infects.
The disease is spread from one person to another when an actively infected person sneezes or coughs and the airborne bacteria are inhaled by another person. It attacks the lungs, mostly as well as other vital organs. The symptoms, include persistent coughing, weight loss, fever, night sweats, loss of appetite, and fatigue.
Standard TB can be cured, but the lack of appropriate response globally has now led to the development of a drug-resistant strain.
In fact, a journal from TheLancet.com showed that some people in South Africa have incurable TB but are still released to the communi
In the case of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other deadly diseases, detection is always the key in preventing its spread. It also helps find the most potent treatments available. The current detection methods can be prohibitively costly. However some researchers have discovered a detection method that uses common shrink wrap, which could provide an effective yet affordable detection method of these infectious diseases.
This nanotechnology method, which is the subject of a paper published in the journal Optical Materials Express, can enhance the fluorescent markers during biosensing with the use of certain metals placed onto shrink wrap.
The accessibility and affordability of shrink wrap opens develop low-cost nanostructures that have the ability to enhance fluorescence a thousand times more so even in the lowest limits. This is according to the paper’s co-author Michelle Khine, a University of California, Irvine biomedica
When some people say that they prefer to recover at home rather than in the hospital to avoid getting sicker than ever, they’re probably right. That’s because your expectations of a sterile room for new patients when you first come in may not be met. There are pathogens on the surfaces of the hospital room that are not easily removed even with the use of the strongest cleaning and disinfection techniques and chemicals. They are usually pathogens that cause healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
HAIs are actually among the largest culprits in patient mortality and morbidity. These pathogens often come from the patient’s endogenous flora, although studies have estimated that around 20% to 40% of these HAIs are actually from the healthcare personnel’s contaminated hands as they got in contact with contaminated hospital surfaces or patients. Various researches have supported that environmental contamination does aid in the easy transfer of Vancomyn-re
The world has so far successfully controlled outbreaks of infectious diseases, but it seems like there’s no stopping the emergence of new microbes. Unfortunately, they’re not only affecting humans and animals, but the wildlife ecosystems as well.
The ecosystem has grown vulnerable to such attacks because of repeated human interventions. Large scale and accelerated production of livestock, the fast paced trade and global travel of both pet animals and domestic livestock, and our increasing disruption of ecosystems are all contributing factors. As a result, new breeds of zoonotic pathogens have emerged.
Aside from affecting human health, these new pathogens have also wreaked havoc on the social, economic, and even political aspects of various countries. Just look back to what happened in the world during the spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), which cost the global economy around $42 billion, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS),